Final Examination                       NAME:

Philosophy 229: Medical Ethics

Short Essay: For two theses below: criticise or defend: 20 pts. each.

  1. A person ought to act so as to produce the greatest balance of good over evil, everyone considered.
  2. A person ought to act so as to promote his or her own self-interest.
  3. A person ought to act in accordance with the rule that, if generally followed, would produce the greatest balance of good over evil, everyone considered.
  4. "Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person, or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always, at the same time as an end."
  5. Medical experiments that harm people or animals should be banned.
  6. Declaring people "mentally ill" has more to do with enforcing social conformity and controlling social deviance than with science or medicine.
  7. Everything possible should be done to preserve the life of every patient for as long as possible unless they themselves request otherwise.
  8. Active euthanasia should be legalized.
  9. Abortion should banned entirely.
  10. Those who desire children should be free to use whatever reproductive technologies exist to have the sorts of children they desire.
  11. Everyone is entitled to adequate medical treatment regardless of poverty or nationality: it's a basic human right.

Multiple Choice: Choose the best answer for each of question below.  1 pt. each: 20 pts. total.

  1. With respect to therapeutic and nontherapeutic research, which is true?

  2.  
    1. Both therapeutic and nontherapeutic research provide direct treatment benefits to the patient-subjects.
    2. General consensus allows that in therapeutic research a slightly higher degree of risk to subjects is ethically permissible.
    3. Nontherapeutic reasearch aims to develop and contribute to generalizable knowledge and therapeutic research does not.
    4. Therapeutic research aims to develop and contribute to generalizable knowledge and nontherapeutic research does not.
       
  3. A prima facie duty is
    1. an obligation one has to oneself.
    2. an absolute and unconditional obligation or perfect duty, allowing of no exceptions.
    3. a conditional obligation or imperfect duty, allowing for exceptions where it conflicts with other duties
    4. a duty grounded in considerations of social justice.

    5.  
  4. Patients whose brainstem function remains sufficient to sustain respiration and heartbeat but to whom consciousness and cognition are irretrievably lost due to irreversible damage to "the higher brain" or cerebral cortex are known as

  5.  
    1. "brain-dead" patients.
    2. "whole-brain dead" patients.
    3. "persistent vegetative state" (PVS) patients.
    4. all of the above.
       
  6. A distinctive feature of this conception of justice is its overriding concern with equality.

  7.  
    1. Libertarian.
    2. Socialist.
    3. Liberal.
    4. All of the above.
       
  8. According to Immanuel Kant suicide is always immoral because

  9.  
    1. it is using your humanity merely as a means to escape suffering
    2. it violates natural law as is shown by the body's natural urge to live
    3. it injures the community
    4. it violates our duty to God.

    5.  
  10. Autonomy may be defined as

  11.  
    1. Liberty of action: i.e., the absence of coercian
    2. Freedom of choice: i.e., the presence of opportunity
    3. Effective deliberation: i.e., absence or internal impediments to good reasoning and free choice.
    4. All of the above.
       
  12. The basic principle of Ethical egoism says

  13.  
    1. Treat humanity in your own person or another always as an end, never merely as a means.
    2. Act always so as to promote your own self-interest.
    3. Pleasure is the only intrinsic good.
    4. The morality of an act depends on its internal characteristics, not just on consequences.

    5.  
  14. The principle of paternalism says

  15.  
    1. A person's liberty is justifiably restricted to prevent them from offending others.
    2. A person's liberty is justifiably restricted to benefit others.
    3. A person's liberty is justifiably restricted to prevent them from harming themselves.
    4. A person's liberty is justifiably redstricted to prevent them from harming others.
       
  16. Utilitarians all agree that

  17. .
    1. The morality of rules or actions is basically a question of rights and obligations.
    2. Pleasure is the only intrinsic good.
    3. The morality of rules or actions is basically a question of consequences or outcomes.
    4. The morality of rules or actions is basically a question of fairness or justice.
       
  18. "Act so as to produce the greatest balance of pleasure over pain, everyone considered,"  is

  19.  
    1. Kant's first formulation of the Categorical Imperative
    2. the basic principle of Rule Utilitarianism.
    3. what Mappes & DeGrazia call "the most important liberty limiting principle"
    4. Benthams hedonistic formulation of the basic principle of Act Utilitarianism.

    5.  
  20. Which of the following is not a criticism Mappes & DeGrazia level against Act Utilitarianism

  21.  
    1. It fails to accord with our conviction that individuals have rights.
    2. Due to its reliance on a single standard, utility, it's too inflexible.
    3. It confronts individuals with overly demanding moral standards.
    4. It fails to accord with our experience of particular morally significant relationships.
       
  22. On a Kantian -- strict duty -- approach to truth-telling a physician may

  23.  
    1. lie when the patient has expressed a clear desire not to know.
    2. never lie to patients unless there is good reason to believe the paitent will be seriously harmed by knowing.
    3. lie to patients when they believe doing so is in the patient's best interest.
    4. None of the above.
       
  24. Moderate positions on abortion always hold

  25.  
    1. the fetus lacks the full moral status of a person at every stage of pregancy.
    2. permissibility varies depending on the stage of development or the reasons for the abortion.
    3. the fetus has no significant moral status at any stage of pregnancy.
    4. all of the above.
       
  26. Which of the following is not a criterion for evaluation of ethical theories Mappes and DeGrazia propose

  27.  
    1. consistency: not contradicting itself
    2. fitting our experience of the moral life and answering to our moral intuitions
    3. providing guidance where it's most needed, i.e. in cases of moral dilemmas & disagreements
    4. None of the above: these are all criteria for the evaluation of ethical theories Mappes & DeGrazia propose.

    5.  

       

  28. Procedure -- existing as yet only as a science fiction possiblity -- that would replace the entire natural conception-fertilization-implantation-gestation process: :

  29.  
    1. in vitro fertilization.
    2. artificial insemination.
    3. ectogenesis.
    4. cloning.

    5.  
  30. A surrogate carrying a child conceived invitro fertilization of the wife's egg is

  31.  
    1. gestational but not genetic mother to the child.
    2. genetic but not gestational mother to the child.
    3. both genetic and gestational mother to the child.
    4. neither genetic nor gestational mother to the child.
       
  32. "Act in accordance with the rule that, if generally followed, would produce the greatest balance of good over evil, everyone considered"

  33.  
    1. Kant's first formulation of the Categorical Imperative
    2. what Mappes & DeGrazia call "the most important liberty limiting principle"
    3. Benthams hedonistic formulation of the basic principle of Act Utilitarianism.
    4. the basic principle of Rule Utilitarianism.
       
  34. Withdrawing life support from a brain dead patient who has made no advance directives would be a case of

  35.  
    1. active voluntary euthanasia.
    2. passive voluntary euthanasia.
    3. passive nonvolutary euthanasia.
    4. active nonvoluntary euthanasia.

  36. Which of the following promises is not included in the Hippocratic Oath

  37.  
    1. To procede only with the patient's informed consent
    2. To do no harm to the patient
    3. To work for the benefit of the patient
    4. None of the above: they're all included in the oath.
       
  38. Which of the following is not true of informed consent?

  39.  
    1. It means "competent adults ought not to be subjected to medical interventions without their informed and voluntary consent"
    2. To "transmit information to patients via a form or a short conversation listing possible risks and alternatives" is the extent of a physicians moral obligation.
    3. Morally, it requires physicians to "have insight into the communication process they use to achieve informed consent" and engage in a genuine "conversation" with the patient.
    4. Courts have ruled that physicians have a legal duty to "satisfy the informational needs of the patient"

Short Essay Answer Sheet                    Name: