Ch. Scientists and Scientific Ideas Philosophers and Philosophical Concepts
1.
  • Priestley: phlogiston
  • Aristotle: geocentric theory
  • Copernicus: heliocentric theory 
  • Modern Science: Mechanism
    • stress on quantitative precision 
    • rejection of final causation
  • Aristotelian Science
    • stress on qualitative comprehension
    • nvoking final causes or purposes
  • Hempel's covering law model
    • explanation as subsumption under laws
    • potential predictivity
  • Aristotle: 
    • Four causes: 
      • efficient & material
      • formal &  final
    • Essentialism
2.
  • Semmelweis: 
    • childbed fever
    • micro-organism theory of infection
  • Kepler: 
    • elliptical orbits
  • Newton: universal gravitation
    • celestial motion
      • planetary orbits
    • terrestrial motion
      • behavior of falling bodies and projectiles
      • tides
  • Descartes: 
    • mechanism: no "action at a distance
    • dualism
  • Bacon: 
    • presuppositionless observation
    • idols
  • Deduction: necessary inference
  • Induction: probable inference
  • Hume: skepticism about induction
  • Goodman: 
    • new (grue) riddle of induction, projectable predicate
3.
  • Einstein: 
    • gravitation bends light
  • Newton: 
    • light travels in a straight line regardless of gravity. 
  • Freud: Psycholanalysis
  • Marx: Communism
  • Karl Popper
    • corroboration, falsification
    • conjecture and refutation
  • Bayes' theorem
    • prior probability, severity of testing
    • confirmation
4.
  • Psychoanalysis: suspect for being psuedo-scientific 
    • due to failure to make testable predictions
  • Communism: suspect for being pseudo-scientific for being  unfalsifiable due to ad hoc modifications of the theory. 
    • Prediction: revolution in the industrialized world
    • No ... revolution in the undeveloped world
      • Lenin's theory of imperialism
  • Popper
    • Demarcation criterion, pseudo-science
  • Kuhn
    • paradigm, scientific revolution, normal science
    • incommensurability, relativism, theory-ladenness of perception
  • simplicity: Occam's razor
  • Context of Discovery: creative stage of speculation and hypothesis formation
  • Context of Justification: critical stage of experimental and observational testing
5.
  • Gallileo: pendulum
  • Aristotle: constrained fall
  • Lavoisier: oxygen
  • Newton: instantaneous gravitational action at a distance.
  • Einstein: gravitation explained by the curvature of space around material bodies
  • Operational definition
  • Quine: holism
  • phenomenalism
  • physical thing language
  • empiricism
  • underdetermination of theory by data