PHL305: STUDY GUIDE 2
Ch. Thinkers, Theories and Concepts Thinkers, Theories, and Concepts
6.
  • Shröedinger's Cat: Riddle: determinacy of macroscopic events v. quantum indeterminacy
  • proposed solutions: 1. consciousness collapses the wave packet; 2. Copenhagen; hidden variable; many worlds
  • Einstein: "God doesn't play dice with the universe."
  • Manifold Image v. Scientific Image
  • Empirical adequacy
  • Unity of Science
7.
  • Mathematical theory of probability
    • 1 = certainty or necessity
    • 0 = certainty or necessity not
    • intermediate values >0 and <1 represent degrees of probability
    • Multiplication theorem: p = p(a) * p(b,a)
      • If a and b are independent events: p(a & b) = p(a)*p(b)
    • Addition theorem: p(a or b) = p(a) + p(b) - p(a & b)
      • if a and b are mutually exclusive events: p(a or b) = p(a) + p(b)
  • Carnap: logical theory of probability based on state descriptions
  • Popper: propensity theory of probability
  • Relative frequency theory of probability
  • Bernoulli: Law of large numbers.
  • Determinism v. Indeterminacy
  • Quantum indeterminacy
  • Metaphysical Indeterminacy: Objective Theories of Probability
  • Epistemic Indeterminacy: Subjective Theories of Probability
  • Laplace: Laplace's Demon & Classical (a priori) theory of probability
8.
  • Unity of Science: Physicalism/Materialism & Atomism
  • Logicism
    • Goedel: Incompleteness of Arithmetic & Logic
    • Russell: Set theoretic paradoxes
  • Pythagorus: pythagoreanism & incommensurability of the diagonal
  • Newton
    • discontinuous atoms exist in absolute space with unoccupied space around & between
    • reduction of Kepler's laws of planetary motion & of Gallileo's laws of terrestrial motion to a single account citing three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation
  • Descartes: Cartesian Mechanics
    • Dualism
    • Nonatomic theory of matter continuous extended stuff
    • Denial of absolute existence of space, or the possibility of unoccupied space (a vacuum)
  • Einstein's proposal: it all reduces to
    • gravitational forces, which constitute "space"
    • electromagnetic forces, which constitute "matter"
  • Bohm: quantum theory of atomic structure
  • Emergence, Vitalism, & property dualism
  • definitional identities & extensional equivalence
  • Ernst Nagel: classical model of reduction
    • derivation of higher level laws from lower level laws
    • plus "bridge laws" correlating higher & lower level elements
  • multiple realization & supervenience
  • overdetermination
  • epiphenomenalism &  interactionism
  • cognition: propositional attitudes having "intentionality"
  • sensations: experiences or "qualia"
9..
  • criticisms of "scientism" (importation of hard scientific methods into social science)
    • method-driven vs. data-driven inquiry
    • peculiarities of social/psychological phenomena 
    • "prediction" & "control" codewords for authoritarianism
  • alternatives to scientism
    • versehen -- interpretive understanding
    • neo-Marxism
  • peculiarities of social/psychological phenomena
    • self-referentiality & being products of voluntary acts
    • normativity: value ladenness
  • Thales: question: What is it all made of? answer: Water!
  • Auguste Compte's Positivism: the light of positive scientific knowledge replaces darkness of mythological speculation as science marches on
  • Eliminativism & its Critique of folk psychology (FP)
    • FP explanations compete with neuroscientific explanations of the same  behavioral phenomena & FP a proven failure.
  • Conceptual unsuitability of FP as science
    • suppositions of free will & teleology
    • subjectivity of experience & opacity of thought
  • Critique of Eliminativism: self-refuting & over-reaching of mythic proportions