Ch. 
Thinkers, Theories and Concepts 
Thinkers, Theories, and
Concepts 
6.


Shröedinger's Cat: Riddle:
determinacy of macroscopic events v. quantum indeterminacy

proposed solutions: 1. consciousness
collapses the wave packet; 2. Copenhagen; hidden variable; many worlds

Einstein: "God doesn't play dice
with the universe."


Manifold Image v. Scientific Image

Empirical adequacy

Unity of Science

7.


Mathematical theory of probability

1 = certainty or necessity

0 = certainty or necessity not

intermediate values >0 and <1
represent degrees of probability

Multiplication theorem: p = p(a)
* p(b,a)

If a and b are independent events:
p(a & b) = p(a)*p(b)

Addition theorem: p(a or b) = p(a)
+ p(b)  p(a & b)

if a and b are mutually exclusive
events: p(a or b) = p(a) + p(b)

Carnap: logical theory of probability
based on state descriptions


Popper: propensity theory of probability

Relative frequency theory of probability

Bernoulli: Law of large numbers.

Determinism v. Indeterminacy

Quantum indeterminacy

Metaphysical Indeterminacy: Objective
Theories of Probability

Epistemic Indeterminacy: Subjective
Theories of Probability

Laplace: Laplace's Demon &
Classical (a priori) theory of probability

8.


Unity of Science: Physicalism/Materialism
& Atomism

Logicism

Goedel: Incompleteness of Arithmetic
& Logic

Russell: Set theoretic paradoxes

Pythagorus: pythagoreanism &
incommensurability of the diagonal

Newton

discontinuous atoms exist in absolute
space with unoccupied space around & between

reduction of Kepler's laws of planetary
motion & of Gallileo's laws of terrestrial motion to a single account
citing three laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation

Descartes: Cartesian Mechanics

Dualism

Nonatomic theory of matter continuous
extended stuff

Denial of absolute existence of
space, or the possibility of unoccupied space (a vacuum)


Einstein's proposal: it all reduces
to

gravitational forces, which constitute
"space"

electromagnetic forces, which constitute
"matter"

Bohm: quantum theory of atomic
structure

Emergence, Vitalism, & property
dualism

definitional identities & extensional
equivalence

Ernst Nagel: classical model of
reduction

derivation of higher level laws
from lower level laws

plus "bridge laws" correlating
higher & lower level elements

multiple realization & supervenience

overdetermination

epiphenomenalism & interactionism

cognition: propositional attitudes
having "intentionality"

sensations: experiences or "qualia"

9..


criticisms of "scientism" (importation
of hard scientific methods into social science)

methoddriven vs. datadriven inquiry

peculiarities of social/psychological
phenomena

"prediction" & "control" codewords
for authoritarianism

alternatives to scientism

versehen  interpretive
understanding

neoMarxism

peculiarities of social/psychological
phenomena

selfreferentiality & being
products of voluntary acts

normativity: value ladenness

Thales: question: What is it all
made of? answer: Water!


Auguste Compte's Positivism: the
light of positive scientific knowledge replaces darkness of mythological
speculation as science marches on

Eliminativism & its Critique
of folk psychology (FP)

FP explanations compete with neuroscientific
explanations of the same behavioral phenomena & FP a proven failure.

Conceptual unsuitability of FP
as science

suppositions of free will &
teleology

subjectivity of experience &
opacity of thought

Critique of Eliminativism: selfrefuting
& overreaching of mythic proportions
