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The Manifesto of the Communist Party

Introduction by Vladimir Pozner

Manifesto of the Communist Party 1848

I.  Bourgeois and Proletarians

II.  Proletarians and Communists

III.  Socialist and Communist Literature

  1. Reactionary Socialism
    1. Feudal socialism: Nothing is easier than to give Christian asceticism a socialist tinge. Has not Christianity declaimed against private property, against marriage, against the state? Has it not preached in the place of these, charity and poverty, celibacy and mortification of the flesh, monastic life and Mother Church? Christian socialism is but the holy water with which the priest consecrates the heart-burnings of the aristocrat.
    2. Petty-Bourgeois Socialism:  The medieval burgesses and the small peasant proprietors were the precursors of the modern bourgeoisie. In those countries which are but little developed, industrially and commercially, these two classes still vegetate side by side with the rising bourgeoisie. In countries where modern civilization has become fully developed, a new class of petty bourgeois has been formed, fluctuating between proletariat and bourgeoisie, and ever renewing itself a supplementary part of bourgeois society.
    3. German or "True" Socialism: It went to the extreme length of directly opposing the "brutally destructive" tendency of communism, and of proclaiming its supreme and impartial contempt of all class struggles.
  2. Conservative or Bourgeois Socialism: A part of the bourgeoisis is desirous of redressing social grievances in order to secure the contintued existence of bourgeois society.  ...  They wish for a bourgeoisie without a proletariat. The bourgeoisie naturally conceives the world in which it is supreme to be the best; and bourgeois socialism develops this comfortable conception into various more or less complete systems.
  3. Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism: 

IV.  Position of the Communists in Relation to the Various Existing Opposition Parties

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