The Turing Test

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1. The Imitation Game

2. Critique of the New Problem

 3. The Machines Concerned in the Game


  1. It is natural that we should wish to permit every kind of engineering technique to be used in our machines.
  2. We also wish to allow the possibility than an engineer or team of engineers may construct a machine which works, but whose manner of operation cannot be satisfactorily described by its constructors because they have applied a method which is largely experimental.
  3. Finally, we wish to exclude from the machines men born in the usual manner.

4. Digital Computers

5. The Universality of Digital Computers

6.  Contrary Views on the Main Question

(1) The Theological Objection

(2) The 'Heads in the Sand' Objection

(3) The Mathematical Objection

(4) The Argument from Consciousness

(5) Arguments from Various Disabilities

(6) Lady Lovelace's Objection

(7) Argument from the Continuity of the Nervous System

(8) Argument from the Informality of Behavior

(9) The Argument from Extra-Sensory Perception

7. Learning Machines